The progress bar just got a lot cheaper

January 23, 2018 Code R pbapply progress bar processing time

The pbapply R package that adds progress bar to vectorized functions has been know to accumulate overhead when calling parallel::mclapply with forking (see this post for more background on the issue). Strangely enough, a GitHub issue held the key to the solution that I am going to outline below. Long story short: forking is no longer expensive with pbapply, and as it turns out, it never was.

The issue mentioned parallel::makeForkCluster as the way to set up a Fork cluster, which, according to the help page, ‘is merely a stub on Windows. On Unix-alike platforms it creates the worker process by forking’. So I looked at some timings starting with one of the examples on the ?pbapply help page:

library(pbapply)
set.seed(1234)
n <- 200
x <- rnorm(n)
y <- rnorm(n, crossprod(t(model.matrix(~ x)), c(0, 1)), sd = 0.5)
d <- data.frame(y, x)

mod <- lm(y ~ x, d)
ndat <- model.frame(mod)
B <- 100
bid <- sapply(1:B, function(i) sample(nrow(ndat), nrow(ndat), TRUE))
fun <- function(z) {
    if (missing(z))
        z <- sample(nrow(ndat), nrow(ndat), TRUE)
    coef(lm(mod$call$formula, data=ndat[z,]))
} 

## forking with mclapply
system.time(res1 <- pblapply(1:B, function(i) fun(bid[,i]), cl = 2L))
##   |++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++| 100% elapsed = 01s
##   user  system elapsed 
##  0.587   0.919   0.845 

## forking with parLapply
cl <- makeForkCluster(2L)
system.time(res2 <- pblapply(1:B, function(i) fun(bid[,i]), cl = cl))
##   |++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++| 100% elapsed = 00s
##   user  system elapsed 
##  0.058   0.009   0.215 
stopCluster(cl)

## Socket cluster (need to pass objects to workers)
cl <- makeCluster(2L)
clusterExport(cl, c("fun", "mod", "ndat", "bid"))
system.time(res3 <- pblapply(1:B, function(i) fun(bid[,i]), cl = cl))
##   |++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++| 100% elapsed = 00s
##   user  system elapsed 
##  0.053   0.008   0.169 
stopCluster(cl)

Forking with mclapply is still pricey, but the almost equivalent makeForkCluster trick, that does not require objects to be passed to workers due to the shared memory nature of the process, is pretty close to the ordinary Socket cluster option.

What if I used this trick in the package? I would then create a Fork cluster (cl <- makeForkCluster(cl)), run parLapply(cl, ...), and destroy the cluster with on.exit(stopCluster(cl), add = TRUE). So I created a branch to do some tests:

ncl <- 2
B <- 1000
fun <- function(x) {
    Sys.sleep(0.01)
    x^2
}
library(pbmcapply)
(t1 <- system.time(pbmclapply(1:B, fun, mc.cores = ncl)))
##  |========================================================| 100%, ETA 00:00
##   user  system elapsed 
##  0.242   0.114   5.461 

library(pbapply) # 1.3-4 CRAN version
(t2 <- system.time(pblapply(1:B, fun, cl = ncl)))
##   |++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++| 100% elapsed = 07s
##   user  system elapsed 
##  0.667   1.390   6.547 

library(pbapply) # 1.3-5 fork-cluster-speedup branch
(t3 <- system.time(pblapply(1:B, fun, cl = ncl)))
##   |++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++| 100% elapsed = 06s
##   user  system elapsed 
##  0.225   0.100   5.710 

Really nice so far: pbapply caught up to forking based timings with pbmcapply. Let’s see a bit more extensive runs to see how the number of progress bar updates affects the timings. If things work as I hope, there shouldn’t be an increase with the new forking idea:

timer_fun <- function(X, FUN, nout = 100, ...) {
    pbo <- pboptions(nout = nout)
    on.exit(pboptions(pbo))
    unname(system.time(pblapply(X, FUN, ...))[3])
}
timer_NULL <- list(
    nout1  = timer_fun(1:B, fun, nout = 1,       cl = NULL),
    nout10  = timer_fun(1:B, fun, nout = 10,     cl = NULL),
    nout100  = timer_fun(1:B, fun, nout = 100,   cl = NULL),
    nout1000  = timer_fun(1:B, fun, nout = 1000, cl = NULL))
unlist(timer_NULL)
##   nout1   nout10  nout100 nout1000 
##  12.221   11.899   11.775   11.260 

cl <- makeCluster(ncl)
timer_cl <- list(
    nout1  = timer_fun(1:B, fun, nout = 1,       cl = cl),
    nout10  = timer_fun(1:B, fun, nout = 10,     cl = cl),
    nout100  = timer_fun(1:B, fun, nout = 100,   cl = cl),
    nout1000  = timer_fun(1:B, fun, nout = 1000, cl = cl))
stopCluster(cl)
unlist(timer_cl)
##   nout1   nout10  nout100 nout1000 
##   6.033    6.091    6.011    6.273 


## forking with 1.3-4 CRAN version
timer_mc <- list(
    nout1  = timer_fun(1:B, fun, nout = 1,       cl = ncl),
    nout10  = timer_fun(1:B, fun, nout = 10,     cl = ncl),
    nout100  = timer_fun(1:B, fun, nout = 100,   cl = ncl),
    nout1000  = timer_fun(1:B, fun, nout = 1000, cl = ncl))
unlist(timer_mc)
##   nout1   nout10  nout100 nout1000 
##   5.563    5.659    6.620   10.692 

## forking with 1.3-5 fork-cluster-speedup branch
timer_new <- list(
    nout1  = timer_fun(1:B, fun, nout = 1,       cl = ncl),
    nout10  = timer_fun(1:B, fun, nout = 10,     cl = ncl),
    nout100  = timer_fun(1:B, fun, nout = 100,   cl = ncl),
    nout1000  = timer_fun(1:B, fun, nout = 1000, cl = ncl))
unlist(timer_new)
##   nout1   nout10  nout100 nout1000 
##   5.480    5.574    5.665    6.063 

The new implementation with the Fork cluster trick hands down beat the old implementation using mclapply. I wonder what is causing the wildly different timings results. Is it due to all the other mclapply arguments that give control over pre-scheduling, cleanup, and RNG seeds?

The new branch can be installed as:

devtools::install_github("psolymos/pbapply", ref = "fork-cluster-speedup")

I am a bit reluctant of merging the new branch for the following reasons:

  • makeForkCluster was already an option before by explicitly stating the cluster to be a Fork;
  • by hiding the process of creating and destroying the cluster, user options are restricted (i.e. no control over RNGs, which can be a major drawback for simulations);
  • mclapply wasn’t so bad to begin with, because the number of updates were capped by the nout option.

I would recommend the following workflow that is based purely on the stable CRAN version:

cl <- makeForkCluster(2L)
output <- pblapply(..., cl = cl)
stopCluster(cl)

As always, I am keen on hearing what you think: either in the comments or on GitHub.

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